House Construction Plan, Sections, Elevations and Construction Details.
Construction drawings are required for most new build projects.
They provide specifications and information which show how a building will be fitted together.
They’re required by the Building department who will check that the house has been designed safely and is up to date with latest codes and regulations. Once they’ve been approved work can official begin on site.
The drawing of house construction plan usually include the following;
- Foundation plan
- Floor joist plan
- Ground floor plan
- First floor plan
- Roof assembly plan
- Large scale connection details
- and Elevations
I will explain and provide some examples of each of them.
Foundation plans are used to show a section through the proposed sub-structure they provide information on the material which is going to support the building load.
Whether it’s for small or luxury house plans the foundation design information will have to provide sizes and technical details.
The foundation will support all the outer walls of the building including columns, and internal structural walls. These are usually added as dotted lines on the plans.
The most economical and commonly used sub-structure is a poured concrete trench fill known as a strip foundation.
A way to draw them out is to make a copy of the ground floor wall profile then draw the profile the same as the proposed walls and offset it at a distance equal to half the width of the foundation.
I’ve attached an example please feel free to copy or reference it for your design.
Detailed Foundation Plan
Click on the image to Enlarge
Generally it is not necessary to reinforce the foundations, however in some areas where ground is partial to movement reinforcement maybe necessary you can find out whether you will need to or not via the local building department or an architect.
This section will discuss the difference between the solid and suspended floors.
A solid floor usually consists of a layer of concrete, insulation, sand and screed cement. Solid floors are often used in house construction as they economical to construct.
If you would like a more natural floor and you have carpentry skills or a good joiner to hand then you should consider installing a suspended timber floor.
Suspended timber floors with exposed floor boards provide a great hard wearing authentic style. They are more sought after and will add more value to your home than most solid concrete floors.
If you decide to go for a suspended timber floor you will have to produce a construction plan for it. The building officer will want to see a full joist plan. This should show dimensions and specifications of the proposed floor beams including types of and size of timber to be used.
They’ll also request a section drawing which should show how the floor beams will join the outer walls.
House Construction Plan – Floor
The ground floor construction plan should show how all the materials of the building are going to be fitted together at a distance of approximately 3 ft (1 m) above ground.
This will include showing the external and internal ground floor materials including rooms layouts heating appliances openings and also what provisions will be made in order to seal the building from water penetration.
Here is an example of a ground floor construction plan that shows specifically how a house structure can be formed.
It’s worth spending extra attention to detail at this stage to assure that the building drawing is neat and tidy.
If your not sure about a certain part of the design perhaps an awkward stair or a window connection detail, then feel free to send your questions…which can be done here
Ground Floor Plan
House Construction Plan – Ground Floor
The next stage is to develop the first floor construction plan. The aim of this drawing is to show the building inspector how and from what materials you intend to make the outer building structure and internal wall partitions from. The layout and notes will be similar to the ground floor plan.
A rule of thumb when creating the first floor wall profile is to keep it similar to the one used for the ground floor.
Follow walls through from the ground floor to the ceiling of the first creating structural full height elements known as spine walls which will ensure the structure is strong.
A timber frame home does not require a spine wall.
The staircase should be calculated so that an equal amount of treads and risers are added.
The difference between ground and first floor construction are that the materials used for first floor construction tend to be of a lighter weight.
Instead of constructing masonry internal walls use timber frame studs, fiber boards and or a combination of lightweight block work. Timber frame is frequently used as it provides a cheaper alternative to masonry.
When the first floor construction plan is designed locate bathrooms and toilets as near to the ground floor lavatories as possible so that drainage and service pipes can be aligned.
Sometimes it may not be possible to do this and an external service pipe may have to be attached to the outside of the building.
First Floor Plan
Click on the Image to Enlarge
These elements will have to be shown in a layout that works to suit the roof pitch and any extra roof lights you plan to have. The plan should also show spacings and wind restraint straps.
Roof Joist Construction Plan Drawing
House Construction Plan – Roof Joint Plan
Second to last drawing producing large construction details is my favorite part of the drawing stage it really dives into the detail and understanding of how the building fits together.
Its also one of the most important parts of the design as far as water sealing and sound proofing are concerned. It really is easier to show you examples of details rather than explaining them I’ve attached a few examples which should give you idea as to what you have to produce for your house design.
Detail 1 – Wall to Window Junction
Detail 2 – Wall to Roof Junction
Detail 3 – Wall to Floor Junction
Finally the last set of drawings you will have to produce are the large scale elevations. Each elevation, of which there are four in total, have to show wall and roof components.
The elevations indicate to house builders, or you an I, what the outer walls will be constructed from.