What are Architectural Detail Drawings?
Architectural details are drawings which enlarge and show a small part of an architectural assembly at a larger scale.
They are generally supplied by the architect with the structural details provided by the structural engineer.
These details are prepared for various types of construction assemblies including door, window, fireplace, stair, wall or roof details.
The amount and type of details required for a project all depends on the architect’s educated guess of what is required to make the construction process simplified and clear and the contractor may require further architectural details when in the construction phase.
Architectural details are often started as a freehand sketch which is drawn to a scale and once all of the details have been devised, the detailer then drafts it in its final form.
Sometimes though, if the details are straightforward, for example standard foundation and wall assemblies, a freehand sketch is not required.
In order to draw details however, the drafter needs to have a thorough understanding of detailing which is relevant to the area to be detailed.
They cannot just draft a detail to slot into a place as first they should begin with the office format sheet and then decide on the usage of keynotes (whether they wish to place charted notes along one side of the detail)
Architectural Detail Drawings in External Wall
An opening in an external wall has several features which enables it to be structurally sound and safe to use.
Some of the features required to do this include:
- opening thresholds
The function of a head is to carry the load above the opening, and to transmit the forces exerted down the sides. Timber can be used to provide the support required for small spans. Timber should be treated with a preservative.
Also a good material to use for small spans is steel; a mild steel flat angle section can be used to carry the outside leaf of a cavity wall. A more popular material that is also very cost effective is a reinforced concrete lintel.
Due to the advancement in technology artificial, reconstructed stone or GRC (Glass reinforced concrete) is now a popular choice for lintels.
When installed Lintels require a bearing at each end of the opening. The amount will vary with the span, but on average the overlay is between 10-15% of overall length of the lintel.
Jambs in solid walls are bonded to give the required profile and strength. In cavity walls the cavity can be closed at the opening by using a suitable frame, or by turning one of the leaves towards the other, forming a butt joint in which is incorporated a vertical damp-proof course.
The function of a sill is to shed rainwater, which has run down the face of the window or door and collected at the base. Many methods and materials are available; appearance and durability are the main requirements as a sill is not a member that is needed to carry heavy loads. Sills unlike lintels do not require a bearing at each end.